Transient Errors#

Most transient errors can be attributed to network issues between the client and target server or between a server’s dependencies like a database. The errors can be:

  • ignored if an operation produced by a generator or sequence of operations isn’t relevant to the overall success.

  • retried up to a certain limit which assumes that the recovery logic kicks in to repair transient errors.

  • accept that the operation cannot be successfully completed.

Transient fault handling with retries#

The post() method accepts max_attempts, initial_backoff, max_backoff and backoff_multiplier parameters to control the capacity to retry requests when a transient connectivity error occurs, using an exponential backoff strategy. This can help to overcome transient network connectivity issues which are broadly captured by the AioRpcError, ClientError, CancelledError and InternalNetworkError exception types.

The max_attempts parameter determines the number of sending attempts, including the original request. The initial_backoff, max_backoff, and backoff_multiplier parameters determine the randomized delay in seconds before retry attempts.

The initial retry attempt will occur at initial_backoff. In general, the n-th attempt will occur at random(0, min(initial_backoff*backoff_multiplier**(n-1), max_backoff)).

Handling gRPC retries for streaming and unary RPC methods#

The post() method supports the stream boolean parameter (defaults to True). If set to True, the gRPC server side streaming RPC method will be invoked. If set to False, the server side unary RPC method will be invoked. Some important implication of using retries with gRPC are:

  • The built-in gRPC retries are limited in scope and are implemented to work under certain circumstances. More details are specified in the design document.

  • If the stream parameter is set to True and if the inputs parameters is a GeneratorType or an Iterable, the retry must be handled as below because the result must be consumed to check for errors in the stream of responses. The gRPC service retry is still configured but cannot be guaranteed.

    from jina import Client
    from dorcarray import BaseDoc 
    from jina.clients.base.retry import wait_or_raise_err
    from jina.helper import run_async
    client = Client(host='grpc://localhost:12345')
    max_attempts = 5
    initial_backoff = 0.8
    backoff_multiplier = 1.5
    max_backoff = 5
    def input_generator():
        for _ in range(10):
            yield BaseDoc()
    for attempt in range(1, max_attempts + 1):
            response =
            assert len(response) == 1
        except ConnectionError as err:
  • If the stream parameter is set to True and the inputs parameter is a Document or a DocList, the retry is handled internally on the max_attempts, initial_backoff, backoff_multiplier and max_backoff parameters.

  • If the stream parameter is set to False, the post() method invokes the unary RPC method and the retry is handled internally.


The retry parameters max_attempts, initial_backoff, backoff_multiplier and max_backoff of the post() method will be used to set the gRPC retry service options. This improves the chances of success if the gRPC retry conditions are met.

Continue streaming when an Executor error occurs#

The post() accepts a continue_on_error parameter. When set to True, the Client will keep trying to send the remaining requests. The continue_on_error parameter will only apply to Exceptions caused by an Executor, but in case of network connectivity issues, an Exception will be raised.

The continue_on_error parameter handles the errors that are returned by the Executor as part of its response. The errors can be logical errors that might be raised during the execution of the operation. This doesn’t include transient errors represented by AioRpcError, ClientError, CancelledError and InternalNetworkError triggered during the Gateway and Executor communication.

The retries parameter of the Gateway control the number of retries for the transient errors that arise between the Gateway and Executor communication.


Refer to Network Errors section for more information.

Retries with a large inputs or long-running operations#

When using the gRPC client, it is recommended to set the stream parameter to False so that the unary RPC is invoked by the Client which performs the retry internally with the request from the inputs iterator or generator. The request_size parameter must also be set to perform smaller operations which can be retried without much overhead on the server.

The HTTP and WebSocket


Refer to Callbacks section for dealing with success and failures after retries.